AUTONOMY MOVEMENT OF THE MISING

AUTONOMY MOVEMENT OF THE MISING
The North East Region of the India is the land of thousand mutiny mostly inhabited by more than 209 indigenous tribal groups recognized by Government of India as Scheduled Tribes. Not a single indigenous/ tribal peoples group of North East region are at pea at present. Almost all groups are involved in struggle, either armed or peaceful, for one or the other form of self-determination. The Misings, one of the major tribes of the plains of Assam, also have a long history of struggle for Autonomy.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:

The Misings, a major tribe of the North Assam branch of Tibeto-Burman family, first discovered the vast fertile plains land in the foot hills of Arunachal and along the course of river Subonsiri and Brahmaputra up to Kazironga on the south bank and river Jia Bhoroli on the north. They remained a free people with their own self governing system till the advent of British colonial force. Even during the rule of 600 years of Ahom dynasty in plains of Assam, the Misings enjoyed a great degree of Autonomy and the Ahom rulers hardly interfered into the internal affairs of the Misings in order to avoid clash.
Though the plains os Assam went under British colonial rule in 1826, the major portion of Mising territory, particularly the Murkongselek and Sadiya area, had remained free from British occupation till 1911, when a British Expedition conquered this area along with adjoining Adi territory.
The colonial rulers, only for their colonial interest, grouped and regrouped, bifurcated and joined the tribal peoples and their territories and thus played with the geography, demography and everything in a mess, which remains to be undone till date.
As per suggestion of the Montagu-Chelmsfort Reports, 1918, section 52-A was inserted in Govt. Of India Act, 1935 as a consequence of which the following territories of the then province of assam in British India were declared as backward tracts;
a. The Garo hills district,
b. The British portion of Khasi and Jaintia Hills district (other than the shillong Municipality and cantonment)
c. Mikir hills (in Nagaon and Sibsagar districts).
d. The north Cachar Hills (Cachar Districts)
e. The Naga Hills district.
f. The Lushai Hills Districts
g. The Sadiya Frontier tract,
h. The Balipara Frontier tract and
i. The Lakhimpur Frontier Tract.
The traditional Mising territory was divided and parts of the territory were placed in Sadiya, balipara and Lakhimpur backward tracts while the rest were kept under the provisional administration of British Assam. Again, in 1936, backward tracts were categorised as “Excluded and partially Excluded areas” after such recommendation was made by the India Statuary Commission, 1930 (popularly known as Simon Commission), by an order of 1936, the Govt. Of British India regrouped the backward tracts as follows:
A. Excluded Areas:

1. North-east Frontier (Sadiya, Balipara and Lakhimpur tracts),
2. The Naga Hills Districts,
3. The Lushai Hills Districts,
4. The Norh Cachar Hills sub division of Cachar district.
B. Partially Excluded Areas:
1. The Garo Hills Districts,
2. The Mikir Hills in Nagaon and sibsagar districts and
3. The British portion of Khasi and Jaintia Hills District (Other than the Shillong Municipality and the Cantonment).

Thus, a large area of the Mising territory were grouped with NEFA and separated from the rest. These areas were exempted from the power of provincial legislature. The Excluded areas were administered by the Governor himself and the partially Excluded areas were his special responsibly. This provision of the Government of India act, 1935 were, by and large, retained by the Indian (Provisional Constitutional) order, 1947 when India Became independent.
After independence, a committee named Bordoli committee was appointed for determination of the future of these excluded and partially excluded areas. The committee submitted its reports to the advisory committee on fundamental Rights, Minorities and Tribal and excluded Areas for the consideration of the constituent assembly. The recommendation of the Bordoloi Committee were incorporated into the Sixth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and under section 19 of the sixth schedule the Governor was to ensure creation of autonomous district councils for each of the following areas:
1. The United Khasi and Jaintia Hills.
2. The Garo Hills.
3. The Lushai Hills.
4. The Naga Hills
5. The North Cachar Hills
6. The Mikir Hills
7. North East Frontier Tracts including Balipara Frontier Tract, Abor Hills and Mishimi Hills Districts
8. The Naga Tribal Areas.
The committee recommended incorporation of the sixth Schedule to the constitution of India providing Autonomy to the Excluded and partially excluded areas by creating autonomous districts councils. But, the committee, most probably, moved by the objective of assimilating the plains tribals of Assam into the mainstream Assamese nationality, did not strongly recommend for providing autonomy to the Mising and other plains tribal areas in line with other hill areas; rather, with some ambiguous observation, it recommended separation of the plains tribal areas (mostly Mising territory) and amalgamation with the general areas of Assam without providing any constitutional mechanism.
The important portion of the Reports of the sub-committee is as follows:
“the population of the plains tribals, which is being gradually assimilated to the population of the plains, should for all purpose be treated as minority. Measures for protection of their lands are also in our view of necessary action. We have kept in mind the possibility of their being certain areas inhabited by tribals in the plains or the foot of the hills whom it may be necessary to provide in the same manner.”
With more reports, the sub-committee stated that-
“we have also provided that administration of the areas to be brought under the provincial administration in future should also be similar to that of the existing hill districts. We also conclude from the evidence collected at sadiya that the Saikhowaghat portion of the excluded area south of the lohit river and possibly the whole of the sadiya plains portion upto the inner line could be included in regular administration; but feel that the question needs more detailed investigation and recommend that it should be undertaken by the government”
Following the report of the sub-committee, the provincial Government of Assam separated the plains tribal areas from NEFA and amalgamated them with other advanced areas of Assam in 1951 and declared these areas as ‘Transferred Areas’ (Vide Notification No. TAD, 25/50/109, dated 13th February, 1951) and appointed asstt. Political officers at Charduar, balipara, Murkongselek and sadiya (vide notification no. TAD 35/50/154, dated 8th may,1951).

QUIRK OF HISTORY:
The constitution of independent India for two schedule in the constitution for administration of the tribal areas. These are the Fifth schedule and the sixth schedule. The sixth schedule provides for formation of autonomous district councils in the tribal areas of the north east and fifth schedule provides for formation of tribes advisory councils in all other states of the country. But the vast tribal areas in the plains of Assam and the hills of Manipur have been left out these two schedules. Dr. Bhupinder Singh committee or the three member experts committee on plains tribals of Assam constituted by Govt. Of India in the wake of Bodoland movement has strongly criticised this lapse and describe it as a “quirk of history”. This ‘quirk of history’ remains the root cause of tribal agitation in Assam.
THE FIRST RESOLUTIONS:
The first resolution to raise the demand for separate autonomy for the Misings and allied groups was North East frontier Miri-Abor sonmilon. The sonmilon, during its first session held on 20/05/1947 at Murkongselek with Mr.Howard William, the then political Officer of Sadiya on the chair adopted the following resolutions. These are the first resolutions adopted by Mising people demanding Autonomy.
Resolution 1: The sonmilon resolve to extend thanks to the British Govt. On its decision to create independent provincial administration for Assam on its declaration of 20th February, 1947 and farther resolve to supports the proposal for separating Assam from East Pakistan.
Resolution 2: Resolved that we, the Miris (with Miris of provincial administration) abors, daflas and charak communities firmly and unitedly move today to create an autonomous unit for these tribes as per specific boundary given hereinafter as the said tribes are the uniformity in language, religion, culture and manners. Formation of autonomous unit preserve the oneness of assam in general.
Boundary:
North: Tibet.
South: The Brahmaputra River.
East: The Nizemghat (Sadiya).
West: Subonsiri river towards Baginodi in a straight line to meet the Aka hills.
Resolution 3: The autonomous unit shall be consisting of one district legislative council represented by those tribes with their elected representatives. All administrative functions shall be confined within the indigenous Assamese people shall be treated as minority community with their right to vote and shall deserve right of citizenship.
Resolution 4: The council shall elect four representatives to the legislative council of the states.
Resolution 5: All revenues including land revenue shall be remained with district council with the approval of the legislative assembly, if necessary.
Resolution 6: No outside non tribal shall have the right to settle or claim land property to be there, no business be allowed to run by them without the prior permission of council.
Resolution 7: In case of distribution of land amongst the plains Miri-Abors and Hill-Miri-Abors, the existing inner line shall be treated as the boundary for hills and plains and there shall be equal right to settle in hills and plains for the people of hills and plains and vice versa.

THE SECOND PHASE OF THE MOVEMENT:
Though denied their right of self rule, the Misings were also carried away by the euphoria of end of British Colonial rule and hoped for better treatment under independent India. The extended full supports to the congress. They hoped that their territories would be restored, their right over their ancestral land and forest would be back and they would again be free to unite their community and territory and would be able to live as a distinct people with pride. With such hopes and dreams they kept their autonomy demand in the cold storage for almost two decades. But their hopes and dreams got shatterd very last. The Mising people exhibited their first aspiration to live as one people by forming “Misings Agom Kcbang (Mising Language Society)” in 1972 and launching a movement for preservation, development and recognition of their language.

The Mising educated youths and students played a leading rule in organising the Mising community. Till this time,There was no common Mising students organisation covering the whole of Mising inhabited areas. The first missing Student body was formed in 1933 named as Asom Miri Chatro Sonmilon. This was renamed as North Bank Mising Students Union after independence. In 1951, Murkongselek Mising Students Union was formed and 1959 saw formation of South Bank Mising Students Union. All these groups were united in 1971 by forming Assam NEFA Miri Chatro Sonmilon. In 1974, this sonmilon was renamed as Assam Arunachal Mising Students Union. The next session of the union was held in 1978 at Dergaon and the name was again changed to All Assam Mising Students union. The next session was held in September,1982 at All Assam Miri High School, Matmora, Dhakuakhana and it was in this session that an unanimous resolution was passed to demand autonomy for the Misings under the provision of the Sixth Schedule of the constitution. Finally, in the session held on 22, 23 and 24 February, 1985 at Jengraimukh, majuli the union was permanently named as “Takam Mising Porin Kcbang (all missing students union)” and a popular mass movement was launched on the Autonomy demand.
THIRD PHASE OF THE MOVEMENT:
As the autonomy movement grew stronger and popular, a new batch of young political leaders emerged out of the community and they soon developed differences with the existing old generation leadership of “Mising bane Kcbang”, the so-called parent body of the community. Most of the leaders of ‘Mising Bane Kcbang’ belonged to the rulling political partys and therefore, they did not supports the autonomy movement. In this political polarisation of the community, all other missing organisations took the side of pro-autonomy movement and walked out of the 31st general conference of the ‘mising bane kcbang’ held at bodoti in lakhimpur district in 1992. All the organisations jointly announced ‘social boycott’ of ‘Mising Bane Kcbang’ and a convening committee was formed immediately to form a new broad platform to organise the Mising people in supports of Autonomy demand. Later, in February, 1993, ‘Mising Mimag kcbang (Mising Action Committee) was formed at a Mising National Convention held at Jonai in Dhemaji district. Democratic agitational programmes, such as Bandh, picketing, mass mobilisation started.
Considering the growing popularity of the Autonomy movement, the Govt. Of Assam led by late Hiteswar Saikia announced grant of autonomy to the Misings and invite Takam Mising porin Kcbang (TMPK) and Mising Mimag Kcbang (MMK) for negotiation. The Govt. Gave a written proposal to create an autonomous council named as Mising Autonomous Council (MAC), which said that:
1. There shall not be any definite boundary and compact area for the MAC.
2. Revenue village having 50% or more Mising population would be identified and included unto the MAC.
3. The MAC will not have any legislative power; it will have only executive powers on 34 subjects enlisted under 11th schedule of the constitution of India incorporated after the 73rd amendment.
4. Fund to the MAC would be provided only from the tribal sub-plan of the state.
5. The MAC would be created under a state Act and not under any provision of the constitution.
Nine rounds of discussion were held between the Government of Assam and the leadership of TMPK and MMK. The TMPK-MMK insisted that ‘autonomy without boundary’ was an absurd proposition and was not acceptable. They also objected to the creation of 50% Mising population in a revenue village for identification and inclusion into proposed MAC. The TMPK-MMK strongly demanded that the existing ‘tribal belt & Blocks’ and the tribal sub-plan areas in Mising dominated areas should be included into MAC and that the MAC should be provided with powers and function similar to Bodoland Autonomous Council. But, the Assam Govt of congress-I party refused to concede to divide the Mising people. Overnight, a fake organisation named ‘Mising Autonomous deemed Committee (MADC)’ was launched with full patronisation of the Govt and put into dirty fight against the TMPK-MMK. Simultaneously, the Congress-I took up a plan to revive the ‘Mising Bane Kcbang (MBK)’ to use it against the struggling missing people. The MBK and MADC agreed to accept the boundaryless farce Mising autonomous council and organised the 32nd general conference of the Mising bane Kcbang on 21, 22, and 23 april , 1995 at bilmukh under dhakuakhana PS and invited the chief Minister of Assam for formal declaration of the council. This move sparked strong resentment among the Misings and TMPK-MMK vowed to resist the conference. A 60 hour Bandh was called. On the first day of the conference,about five thousand Mising people took out a heroic protest march at Bilmukh and when the procession was advancing towards the venue of the conference to register their protest , CRPF and Assam Police opened indiscriminate fire killing two person namely martyr Mahananda (Boga) Medok and Martyr Noresh Taid. Hundreds were injured. As the 60 hour Bandh continued, police atrocities started in almost every Mising inhabited areas. Thousand people came out to the streets to protest. At Gogamukh in dhemaji district, police brutally lathicharged on hundreds of woman picketers and a young girl named Anjana Pegu was wounded by bayonet. She later succumbed to her injury. The Band turned violent. Roads were blocked by felling trees, bridge were burnt down and markets were ablaze. Amidst such wide spread and strong protest, late Hiteswar Saikia, the then chief Minister of Assam came to Bilmukh by a chopper and addressed a very thinly attended meeting. He however, could not venture to announce his boundaryless autonomy.
Police repression continued and more than 500 activists of TMPK-MMK including all the top leaders were jailed and when most of the TMPK-MMK leaders were in jail, the Govt signed a so called Mising Accord on 14 july, 1995 with MADC and MBK. Later, the Govt. Constituted and interim Mising Autonomous Council headed by a person named Laxminath Pangging known for his closeness to the Chief Minister. After some month, he was replaced by one Mr. Doneswar Modi, a Congress-I leader from Jonai.
The TMPK-MMK continued their democratic agitation against the farce boundaryless Mising Autonomous Council and successfully prevented the leaders of MADC and MBK from entering into Mising Villages. The Mising villagers gave punishment to many persons involve with MADC and MBK by imposing social boycott, shaving of head and parading through village. At many places, violent clashes took places between supports of TMPK-MMK and MADC-MBK.
MISING AUTONOMY DEMAND AND ELECTION:
The Mising people, for the first time in their history, participated in the general election of 1996 with the demand for Autonomy. The MMK fielded candidate in Jonai, dhemaji, dhakuakhana, majuli, lakhimpur and bokakhat assembly constituency and in Lakhimpur parliamentary constituency. However, it could not win a single seat. The Mising people are not in majority in these constituencies excepting Jonai. As they contested the election under the banner of MMK, a Mising-non-Mising polarisation took place resulting in defeat of the minority Misings. The MMK polled more than one lac votes in these constituencies.
ANOTHER PHASE OF NEGOTIATION:
After the 1996 election, Asom gono parishad came to power in Assam defeating Congress-I. The TMPK-MMK, with the strength of one lac peoples supports, demanded immediate dissolution of the interim MAC and holding a fresh talk for a permanent solution of the autonomy issue. But AGP failed to recognize the democratic aspiration of the missing people and neglected issue. Meanwhile, the matter of dissolution of the interim council got mired in a legal battle in guwahati high court. Finally, on 10,march, 1998, the guwahati high court vacated a stay order issued earlier against dissolution and Assam govt dissolve the interim MAC on 11 march, 1998 following which negotiation started with TMPK-MMK for an acceptable solution. After a series of discussion, the TMPK-MMK along with TMMK have signed a memorandum of understanding with Assam govt on 28 april, 1998. The MoU, describes the previous MAC as farce, ineffective and defective. The major points of agreement are:

1. The govt of assam will freshly review the whole MAC act by constituting a high power review committee and the committee will submit its reports within three months.
2. the MAC act will be soon amended after submission of the reports.
3. all the police cases pending against TMPK-MMK members relating to the autonomy agitation will examined for withdrawal.
4. charges of corruption and misappropriation of public money by the functionaries of the previous council will be investigated and action would be taken against those found guilty.
5. election to the Mising autonomous council will be held within five months after review and amendment of the act.

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*HISTORY OF ORIGIN OF THE TANIS OR THE AMIS: PART ONE

History of origin:

The Tanis or the Amis are one of the early, if not the earliest, groups of human races migrating to north-eastern region of India sometimes in the past. The Tanis or the Amis are variously known to other people as the Misings, Mishimis, Pa:dams, Minyongs, Galongs, daflas, Hill Miris, Apa-tanis etc. The language, culture and traditions of these tribes are one and the same. According to ethnologists, the Akas and daflas are one in race with each other, and with the tribes of Abors and Miris inhabiting the hills coming no doubt originally from the same habitats, they are still alike in all material respects as to warrant us in calling them the earlier and later migrations of the same tribe, the abors as the last comers, retaining more of their pristine savagery and hardihood, while the Miris have been to some extent influenced by free association with theplains and the settled habits of civilization. The intercourse between Abors and Miris is still nevertheless constant and intimate. Ethnologist group them into one unit under common appellation of North assam brance although the collectively identify themselves as Tani or Ami, meaning “man”. Scholars of various academics disciplines have unanimously held that they belong to the great Mongoloid race of mankind whose ancient civilization flourished in the upper course of the Yangtse-Kiang and the Hoang-Ho-river-valleys of north-west China. They have close connections with various human races from time immemorial and contributed to the evolution of common culture. They have however no written historical traditios of their own except some disconnected oral traditions which furnish authentic facts of their early history. The history of their early period is, there fore, obscure for us to know owing to dearth of reliable historical materials. This is also mainly owing ot the deficiencies of reliable historical source, but largely to the lack of painstaking academic pursuits. It appears that the true historical period of the tanis or the Amis begins only from the time they are referred to in the historical chronicles called BURANJIS and the Vaisnavite literature of medieval Assam.

The history of origin and migration of the Tanis can be traced with the available historical materials so as to arrive at a definite conclusion on the subject. The most important source is the Greek and Roman classical literature, notably, Pliny’s Natural History, Ptolemy’s Geography and the Periplus of Erythrian Sea, compiled before and after the christen era. The Greek and Roman classical literature refer to the tribes and their habitats as “Meridionales”, “Meridiem”, “Asmira”, “Abarimon”, “Abali”, “Orxulao” etc. Which are identified by the authorities with the names of Abors, Miris, Mishimis, Akas of the north-eastern region of India. It is held on the basis of such identification that century A.D. if not earlier. In Indian classical literature holds that different branches of the great Sini-indian speaking people which had their base near the head waters of the Yangtse-Kiang and the Hoang-he rivers to the north-west china pushed south and west, probably from 2000B.C. the north-Assam tribes of the Abors and Akas, daflas and Miris, and Mishimis, appears to come later and to have established themselves in the mountains to the north of the Brahmaputra plains already in occupation of the Bodos. The classical literatures are therefore evident that the Indo-Chinese people of India have already settles in India since 2000BC and the north Assam tribes have also settled in their present habitats since the beginning of the Christian era.

The study of language has also an important bearing on the origin and migration of the people. Some linguist (Dr. GA Grierson) studied the language spoken by the Mishimis, Adi, Misings, daflas, Apatanis and Akas in some details. He classified their language under the common appellation of North-Assam brance of the Tibeto_Burman group of the Indo-Chinese language family. Grierson, on the basis of his linguistic study observe that the North-Assam brance language is a connecting link of the Tibetan and the Himalayan dialects with that of the Kuki-Chin, Bodo, Naga and Kachin groups. He therefore concluded that the home of the North-Assam tribes may be considered as a kind of backwater. The eddies of the various waves of Tibeto-Burman immigration have swept over it and left their stamps on the dialects. The impression on the North-Assam tribes was probably left before or in the course of their migration to their present habitats. The above instance indicates that the North-Assam tribes intermixed with various branches of the Tibeto-Burman language speakers, and also migrated to their present habitats later than many other groups of these language speakers. Dr. Grierson, traces, on the basis of his linguistic analysis, the migration of the Tibeto-Chinese language speakers in three successive waves; the first batch migrated during the pre-historic times; secondly, the Tibeto-Burmans migrated to Tibet and then to India, the period of which is unknown; thirdly, the Tai branch of the Siamese-Chinese group migrated in about in recent times. Apparently, the above list of migration indicates that the North-Assam tribes are included in the second wave of migration which took place between the period of prehistory and the sixth century A.D. it is therefore, certain that the North-Assam tribes have already migrated and settled in their present habitates since the beginning of the Christian era.

Archaeological evidences also point out the early history of the North-Assam tribes. Some Neolithic cultureal tools such as Jadeite, gneiss and dolerite made of local rocks, limestone and bone have been discovered at Sadiya, Abor-hills and the Mishimi-hills. These Neolithic culture tools are said to be associated with the cultivator of agriculture, slaying of animals etc. some historian has contended on the basis of these cultural materials, that “ the facetted tool has the closet link with the types of tools known from yunnan….the prolific use of jadeite further strengthens the link with Yunnan, in fact, with the discovery of a specimen in the Mishimi Hill the cultural contact of this region with Yunnan can hardly be doubted. Indeed the main tools types of Yunnan and the Sadiya Frontier zone are identical and the use of the common material, jadeite, firmly established the identity. The analysis of tools suggests that the Neolithic culture in Assam, as represented by these stone tools, are of late origin. The earliest possible date is linked us with the chronology of the developed neoliths in the countries of south-east-asia and south-china. The late origin of the Neolithic cultural materials, as concluded by historians, suggested that the North-Assam tribes have lately migrated from the Chinese province of Yunnan etc. and settled in their present habitats. Apart from this, the Tezpur rock Inscription of Harjaravana (GE=510=829/830 AD) also refers to the term Abara-Parbata which the autorities have held to be referred to the present Abor-Hills. The reference to the word ‘Abor’ in this rock inscription of 829/830 A.D. confirms that the North-Assam Tribes have settled in their present habitats since the beginning of this Christian era.

*THE AGOM AND A:BANG OF TANI-AGOM PART II

A:BANG:

‘A:bang’ is a verse form of hymn of praise, worship to God or Goddess. Prayer to God for help, protection and blessing. It may be historical appendix giving an account of the Mising community. On the other hand it may be a love poem which celebrates the lusty joys of the life constitutes a form of poetic arts, a types of vernacular literature of the Mising Society.

A:BANG’ retains the fine flavors of its source. Not only are phenomenal designs and forms confirmed to the verses, but widely separated portions of the “a:bang” woven into intricate and p[perfect pattern. Each word is linked and connected in one marvelous patterns. The following “Mibu A:bang” evoking to goddess “Sirki na:nc” is cited for an example of its kind-

“Sirki na:nc na:na
na:na bctta.
Rcgvnc na:na, rcgvnc ba:ba
Side di:dum sidona, Mising Svlongkc;
Misingc rurubc dodo, Abu tanimc
Rumang ruyunc, Rung-gc gcge:la
Noni tarungcm kc:nc ncrv:lo,vrgc gctonc
Silo bo:mo lo:tu:so, ncni gomlabcm
Lcni bclamcm. Lablen botokui, botokui
Sirki na:nc”

‘Rcgi’ and ‘Rcgam’ manifesting the love of mother and father, you gave birth to “Abu-tani” then the resolate of religious path for righteous occasion was bestwed on Mising being incarnated by your spirit under a ‘Kc:nc’ tree. When Mising was in darkness, a voice spoken from the above was descending on earth as a light through sublime command.

Another example of “Mirv A:bang” is given below

“Dcrmi sv:tungc turmcko tvrmanga
Kombong apunc rcyibko rcyaba
Omam nyameya rcyibko rcyaba
Tctvkc pa:pvkc rcyibko rcyaba
Modio bolopc rcyibko rcyaba
Lciko lckorc rcyibko rcyaba
Kortogc gcdubong rcyibko rcyaba
Tctvkc tcpurkc rcyibko rcyaba
Modio dilu:scm rcyibko rcyaba
Dcpvngc gctobong rcyibko rcyaba
Taniyc tarokc rcyibko rcyaba
Modi ditu:to rcyibko rcyaba
Yvrobc bilangkui rcyibko rcyaba”

A land of ever spring is a dreamy place of a ‘Mibu’ where “Tatvkc papu” lords over there. In that land there is a hidden boundary between living and death, there is a line unseen by us, but a place , we do not know where which marks the real man. Mibu asks his company of girls and boys to leave that place and come back to the land belongs to ‘Tani’.

Mibu A;bang is an evocation to god or goddess of nature to dominate circumstances by the use of supernatural powers and generally to tap and to imply the forces of an unseen world.

M irv a:bang is an appealing song of melodious tune with theme and treatment; yet wonderfully appeals to god or goddess for their spiritual incarnation of him. The spirit of god or goddess is supposed to have enterd the body of a Mibu and the sytem of such spiritually incarnation is called ‘Pa:ro A:nam’, then the Mibu becames godly man-“MIRV”.

Mirv a:bang is a lyrical appeal versed for purposeful occasion of an occult ritual, a religio-cultural song of Mibu.

Ni:tom A:bang is an narrative song of versatile interest in natural phenomena, a song of love of creative suggestion. It is literary tradition of poetical genius that the Mising had have.

Example:
“Yerungc ka:lvgc kentu geyumc
Dognc lvngvrc alvngc ka:yumc
Lc:bang sonyiko migbc so:nyiko
Mikscng amigc ka:lvgc bincko
Ri:bi gcnamdc gascng kebnamdc
Oi nok gcnamdc gcyum binamko
Do:nyi owangc mvryub doncmc
Po:lo lounc un yang doncmc
Kumdang tarungcm rung ge:la:na
Dumdcnkc oyvng yvngkum sutagla
Do;nok gomugc tadyum bincko
Oi-nok ni:tomc gomkan namdc:na
So:yong pcttangkc gomuk cdcna
Oi-ya mc:namcm mcbongok mcnamcm
Oi-no mc:namcm mcngkin bincko
Dolong miksyic jiri tulana
Atcrkc miksiyc pari bincko”

Meaning:
“looks nice when fitted
with ‘kentu’ that gliters
on her ears and
a dognc lvngkcr
around her neck
dressed in ri:bi-gascng
the girl looks befitting
and her pair of eye-brows
like two rain bows
the eye looks smiling
and her eye lids
do grace to beautify
more her face.
Sun set fades
In the west
Darkness takes away
The light of the day
But the moon
On the east
Shuns the flaming wheel
That chases out
The gloom of the day done
The village youths
Flocks to-gather
For evening meet
Where their wishes
Are expressed
In their songs.
Dear is the voice
Which sounds
Like the voice of cuckoos
That sweetens the ears
Of the beloved one
But each words brings out
Her tears
Thus, the responses
To the mind of her lover
In her solitary mind
Unknown to other.

So, it can be said that ‘a:bang’ is the emergence of several songs of praise, folk poem or ballad like “poly-phonic music” in which several voices participated each deriving its own melody and rhyme musically blending together.

A:BANG can be classified into five categories:-
1. Mibu a:bang
2. Mirv a:bang
3. Miri a:bang
4. Miri ba:ri a:bang
5. Ni:tom a:bang or abe

Ni:tom a:bang has three parts:-
1. Dongkung ni:tom
2. do:bo ni:tom a:bang
3. Kaban ni:tom a:bang

Kaban Ni:tom is a song of tragedy for frustrated life. Its has four parts:-
1. komjvng Kaban
2. do:bo Kaban
3. ariyang Kaban
4. mc:bo Kaban

Mc:bo Kaban ni:tom later on becomes a song of love born matter popularly known a “Oi-ni:tom”.

*THE AGOM AND A:BANG OF TANI-AGOM:PART I

THE AGOM AND A:BANG OF TANI-AGOM:

AGOM

The Misings belongs to a diversity of several kindred tribes and regarded as indicative of a race, but not as the name of a tribe. A mixed formation of many tribes which has been attributed to admixture of racial elements are agglomerated into a community of Mising. There have been a considerable intermingling of several tribal dialects forming a pattern of common language which generally known a Mising Agom appertaining to all of the Mising as a whole.

The mising Agom has relatively close affinity with many Arunachal tribal descents traced to a common ancestor-‘Abo Tani’. The little difference among them is mainly phonetical. Basically the same words are pronounced with slight variations. The fundamental words are almost the same in all of them.

The following words are the random illustration of mutual affinities of tribal speaking Tani-agom.

ENGLISH APATANI GALONG NISHI HILL MIRI ADI MISING
Beer O Opo Opo Opo Apong Apong
Salt A:lo A:lo A:lo Alo Alo Alo
I Ngo Ngo Ngo Ngo Ngo Ngo
We Nunu Ngunu/Ngulu Ngulu Ngulu Ngulu Ngolu
You No Nunu No No No No
He/She mo mi mi be bv bv
His/Her hoko migc migc ekke bvkke bvkkc

Agom in its common meaning is the language of the Mising and it is included in ‘Tani-Agom’. The first word is said to have preceded out as ‘Om Laye’ and the first man created as ‘Tapa Pumang’. These two words are ‘Gomdvk’, a kind of incantation generally used by Mibu, the Mising priestly man who is an institution by himself.

“Neni Gomtangcm
leni bclamko
Gomtang ba:buck
Do:yvng Na:ncbv
Gomnc gomta:dcm
Gompv gomta:pc
Tadlen Bitonc”

According to the ‘Mibu Gompak’ cited above, voice is believed to have existed in heaven as ‘Gomnc-Gomtang’ and came down on Earth in a divine way and then spoken out as ‘Gompv-Gomtang’ by a ‘Ta:bo’ who is given inspiration of ‘Do:yvng’ name of ‘Gomtang Ba:bu’. The Mibu here. Introduce himself as ‘Ta:bo’(wiseman). Further he says.

“Ncnio Ngomdunc
Ta:bo Ngomdanc
Tomgc Gclukdoscm”

So, ‘agom’ is the creation of god, in the sense that he inspired ‘Do:Yvng Na:nc’ to speak out the ‘Gomnc-gomtang’ as a ‘Gompv-gomtang’ in the mouth of a Ta:bo.

‘Gompv-gomtang’ is generally expressed in two ways and these are ‘Agom’(Gomtang) and ‘A:bang’ which accord perfectly and both are part of one homogeneous whole.

‘Agom’ (Gomtang) can mainly be divided into two parts. ‘Agom’ and ‘Gompak’.

1. Agom here means a common colloquies.
2. Gompak is purposely spoken for a particular occasion. Having rhetorical order it is generally used in oratorical speech, prayer and proverbial phrase.
“Yumsi odarcm gvjoncko
Osim tarungcm ru:joncko”

It tells about a man who can find out solution of a dangerous situation. The phrase is used in oratorical speech.

“Ako sinna-Anc sangge:ya
Po:lo orumso-Do:nyi orumso
Do:nyi awo komvlo
Po:lo awo komvlo
Side du:yc”,

You are the one, only the powerful source of creation of all. We are under kind fold of ‘Do:nyi-Po:lo’ being true to their real existence forever. It is a ‘Lube Gompak’-prayer.

“Dumbo bclamcm svkka:ma:
opan agomcm tadk:ma”

“Breaking deer has no value as an ordinary pray and advice of layman is not accepted as humble creator”. It is “solog gompak”-proverb.